当前位置: 首页新书简介 › 航空航天

Aeronautical Applications of Non-destructive Testing

作者: Abbas Fahr 出版社: DEStech Publications, Inc
ISBN: 9781605951201分类号: V250.2 /F158
出版时间: 2014-03-06有300人浏览

Aeronautical Applications of Non-destructive Testing

[Book Description]

This critical book is among the first to provide a detailed assessment of non-destructive testing methods for the many materials and thousands of parts in aircraft. It describes a wide variety of NDT techniques and explains their application in the evaluation and inspection of aerospace materials and components ranging from the entire airframe to systems and subsystems. At the same time the book offers guidance on the information derived from each NDT method and its relation to aircraft design, repair, maintenance and overall safety. The book covers basic principles, as well as practical details of instrumentation, procedures and operational results with a full discussion of each method's capabilities and limitations as these pertain to aircraft inspection and different types of materials, e.g., composites and metal alloys.Some of the highlights of the book include: comprehensive guide to the basic principles and applications of non-destructive testing methods for aircraft system and components: airframe, propulsion, landing gear and more; provides detailed analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of major NDT methods; and important for design, inspection, maintenance, repair, corrosion protection and safety.

[Table of Contents]
 List of Acronyms                           xiii
Foreword xvii
Preface xxi
Acknowledgments xxiii
1 Introduction 1 (6)
1.1 Purpose 1 (1)
1.2 Definitions 2 (1)
1.3 Aeronautical NDT 3 (2)
1.3.1 NDT Methods 3 (1)
1.3.2 NDT Performance Measures 4 (1)
1.4 Organization of the Chapters 5 (1)
1.5 Chapter References 6 (1)
2 NDT in Aircraft Design, Manufacture, and 7 (22)
Operation...
2.1 Aircraft Design 7 (10)
2.1.1 Safe-Life 8 (2)
2.1.2 Fail-Safe 10 (1)
2.1.3 Damage Tolerance 11 (5)
2.1.4 Holistic Approach 16 (1)
2.2 NDT during Aircraft Life Cycle 17 (8)
2.2.1 Development and Manufacturing 17 (1)
2.2.2 Operation 18 (3)
2.2.3 Aging Aircraft 21 (4)
2.3 Chapter References 25 (4)
3 NDT Process 29 (42)
3.1 Background 29 (1)
3.2 NDT Personnel 30 (1)
3.3 Standard Practices 31 (2)
3.4 Reference Standards 33 (1)
3.5 Non-standard Reference Pieces 34 (1)
3.6 Calibrations 35 (1)
3.7 NDT Measurements 36 (1)
3.7.1 Example 37 (1)
3.8 NDT Signal and Image Processing 37 (11)
3.8.1 NDT Signals 38 (1)
3.8.2 Signal-to-noise Ratio 39 (1)
3.8.3 Fourier Analysis 40 (2)
3.8.4 Gated Signals 42 (1)
3.8.5 Signal Averaging 42 (1)
3.8.6 Wavelet Transformation 42 (1)
3.8.7 Time-frequency Analysis 43 (1)
3.8.8 Statistical Pattern Recognition 43 (1)
3.8.9 Neural Network 44 (1)
3.8.10 Data Fusion 44 (1)
3.8.11 Basic Scanning and Presentation 45 (2)
Modes
3.8.12 Image Processing 47 (1)
3.9 NDT Modeling 48 (2)
3.9.1 Forward Problem 50 (1)
3.9.2 Inverse Problems 50 (1)
3.10 Examples of Non-standard Reference 50 (9)
Pieces
3.10.1 Metallic Samples with Cracks 50 (4)
3.10.2 Metallic Samples with Material 54 (1)
Loss
3.10.3 Composite Reference Pieces 55 (4)
3.11 Appendices 59 (9)
3.11.1 A Partial List of ASTM General 59 (8)
and Aerospace-related NDT Standards
3.11.2 A Partial List of ISO NDT 67 (1)
Standards
3.12 Chapter References 68 (3)
4 Visual Inspection and Optical Methods 71 (16)
4.1 Visual Inspection 71 (5)
4.1.1 Borescopes 71 (3)
4.1.2 Application Examples 74 (1)
4.1.3 Capabilities and Limitations 74 (2)
4.2 Edge of Light (EOL) 76 (3)
4.2.1 Principles 76 (1)
4.2.2 Application Examples 76 (2)
4.2.3 Capabilities and Limitations 78 (1)
4.3 Double Pass Retroreflection or D-sight 79 (3)
4.3.1 Principles 79 (1)
4.3.2 Application Examples 80 (1)
4.3.3 Capabilities and Limitations 80 (2)
4.4 Laser Shearography 82 (3)
4.4.1 Principles 82 (1)
4.4.2 Application Examples 83 (2)
4.4.3 Capabilities and Limitations 85 (1)
4.5 Chapter References 85 (2)
5 Liquid Penetrant, Replication, and 87 (24)
Magnetic Particle Methods
5.1 Liquid Penetrant Inspection (LPI) 87 (8)
5.1.1 Principles 87 (1)
5.1.2 LPI Process 88 (3)
5.1.3 LPI Methods 91 (1)
5.1.4 Equipment 92 (2)
5.1.5 Application Examples 94 (1)
5.1.6 Capabilities and Limitations 94 (1)
5.2 Replication 95 (3)
5.2.1 Principles 95 (1)
5.2.2 Replication Materials 96 (1)
5.2.3 Application Examples 97 (1)
5.2.4 Capabilities and Limitations 98 (1)
5.3 Magnetic Particle Inspection (MPI) 98 (10)
5.3.1 Principles 98 (2)
5.3.2 Magnetization Methods and Devices 100 (3)
5.3.3 Types of Magnetic Particles 103 (2)
5.3.4 MPI Process 105 (1)
5.3.5 Application Examples 106 (1)
5.3.6 Capabilities and Limitations 107 (1)
5.4 Chapter References 108 (3)
6 Electromagnetic Methods 111 (68)
6.1 Principles 111 (2)
6.2 Eddy Current Testing (ECT) 113 (5)
6.2.1 Conventional Eddy Current 115 (2)
6.2.2 Multi-frequency Eddy Current 117 (1)
6.2.3 Pulsed Eddy Current 118 (1)
6.3 Eddy Current Probes 118 (6)
6.3.1 Search Coils 118 (2)
6.3.2 Solid State Sensors 120 (4)
6.4 Eddy Current Measurement 124 (2)
6.4.1 Frequency Effects 124 (1)
6.4.2 Skin Depth of Penetration 125 (1)
6.4.3 Probe Lift-off 125 (1)
6.4.4 Lift-off Intersection (LOI) 126 (1)
6.5 Measurement Systems 126 (16)
6.5.1 Conventional Eddy Current 126 (2)
6.5.2 Pulsed Eddy Current Measurement 128 (14)
Examples
6.6 Application Examples of Eddy Current 142 (28)
Testing
6.6.1 Inspection of Engine Parts 142 (3)
6.6.2 Inspection of Airframe Structures 145 (7)
6.6.3 Inspection of Friction Stir Welds 152 (3)
6.6.4 Inspection of Thermal Barrier 155 (3)
Coatings (TBC)
6.6.5 Inspection of 158 (4)
Nickel-Aluminum-Bronze Valves
6.6.6 Conductivity Mapping 162 (4)
6.6.7 Eddy Current Modeling 166 (4)
6.7 Capabilities and Limitations 170 (1)
6.8 Magneto-optical Imaging (MOI) 171 (3)
6.8.1 Principles 171 (2)
6.8.2 Applications 173 (1)
6.8.3 Capabilities and Limitations 173 (1)
6.9 Chapter References 174 (5)
7 Ultrasonic Methods 179 (68)
7.1 Principles 179 (20)
7.1.1 Wave Types 179 (4)
7.1.2 Acoustic Impedance 183 (1)
7.1.3 Reflection and Transmission at 183 (3)
Boundaries
7.1.4 Attenuation 186 (2)
7.1.5 Sensitivity and Resolution 188 (1)
7.1.6 Signal-to-noise Ratio 189 (1)
7.1.7 Scanning and Presentation 190 (6)
7.1.8 Ultrasonic Coupling 196 (3)
7.2 Testing Procedures 199 (15)
7.2.1 Normal Beam 200 (5)
7.2.2 Oblique-angle Beam 205 (9)
7.3 Equipment 214 (5)
7.3.1 Piezoelectric Transducers 216 (1)
7.3.2 Transducer Arrays 217 (2)
7.4 Application Examples 219 (18)
7.4.1 Procedures and Parameters 219 (5)
7.4.2 Flaw Detection and Sizing 224 (5)
7.4.3 Material Characterization 229 (8)
7.5 Non-contact Ultrasonic Testing 237 (6)
7.5.1 Air-coupled Ultrasonic Testing 237 (2)
7.5.2 Electro-Magnetic Acoustic 239 (1)
Transducers (EMAT)
7.5.3 Laser Ultrasonic Testing 240 (3)
7.6 Chapter References 243 (4)
8 Acoustic Techniques 247 (32)
8.1 Tap Testing 248 (1)
8.1.1 Principles 248 (1)
8.1.2 Applications 248 (1)
8.1.3 Capabilities and Limitations 249 (1)
8.2 Mechanical Impedance Analysis (MIA) 249 (3)
8.2.1 Principles 249 (2)
8.2.2 Applications 251 (1)
8.2.3 Capabilities and Limitations 251 (1)
8.3 Acoustic Resonance 252 (2)
8.3.1 Principles 252 (1)
8.3.2 Applications 253 (1)
8.3.3 Capabilities and Limitations 253 (1)
8.4 Acoustic Emission Testing 254 (15)
8.4.1 Principles 254 (1)
8.4.2 Equipment 255 (1)
8.4.3 Test Procedures 256 (5)
8.4.4 Applications 261 (7)
8.4.5 Capabilities and Limitations 268 (1)
8.5 Acousto-Ultrasonic Technique 269 (8)
8.5.1 Principles 269 (2)
8.5.2 Test Procedure 271 (1)
8.5.3 Applications 271 (5)
8.5.4 Capabilities and Limitations 276 (1)
8.6 Chapter References 277 (2)
9 Infrared Thermography 279 (28)
9.1 Principles 279 (5)
9.1.1 Thermal Diffusion 280 (1)
9.1.2 Thermal Emissivity 281 (2)
9.1.3 IR Thermal Measurement 283 (1)
9.1.4 IR Thermography Procedures 284 (1)
9.2 Passive Thermography 284 (4)
9.2.1 Principles 284 (1)
9.2.2 Application Examples 285 (2)
9.2.3 Capabilities and Limitations 287 (1)
9.3 Active Thermography 288 (15)
9.3.1 Principles 288 (1)
9.3.2 Pulsed Thermography 289 (7)
9.3.3 Pulsed Phase Thermography 296 (2)
9.3.4 Lock-in Thermography 298 (2)
9.3.5 Vibro-thermography 300 (3)
9.4 Thermography Equipment 303 (1)
9.5 Chapter References 304 (3)
10 Radiography 307 (28)
10.1 Principles 307 (1)
10.2 Radiographic Image Quality 308 (4)
10.2.1 Image Density 308 (1)
10.2.2 Sensitivity 308 (1)
10.2.3 Image Contrast 309 (1)
10.2.4 Image Definition 309 (1)
10.2.5 Geometric Sharpness 309 (3)
10.3 X-ray Techniques 312 (12)
10.3.1 Principles 312 (1)
10.3.2 Equipment 312 (7)
10.3.3 Application Examples 319 (4)
10.3.4 Capabilities and Limitations of 323 (1)
X-ray Techniques
10.4 Gamma Rays 324 (2)
10.4.1 Principles 324 (1)
10.4.2 Equipment 325 (1)
10.4.3 Capabilities and Limitations of 325 (1)
Gamma Rays
10.5 Neutron Radiography 326 (2)
10.5.1 Principles 326 (1)
10.5.2 Equipment 326 (1)
10.5.3 Capabilities and Limitations of 327 (1)
Neutron Radiography
10.6 Compton Backscattering 328 (2)
10.6.1 Principles 328 (1)
10.6.2 Equipment 329 (1)
10.6.3 Capabilities and Limitations of 329 (1)
Compton Backscattering
10.7 Computed Tomography 330 (2)
10.7.1 Principles 330 (1)
10.7.2 Equipment 330 (1)
10.7.3 Capabilities and Limitations 331 (1)
10.8 Chapter References 332 (3)
11 NDT of Aerospace Composite Materials and 335 (38)
Components
11.1 Background 335 (2)
11.2 Carbon Fiber Solid Laminates 337 (12)
11.2.1 Defect Types 338 (2)
11.2.2 NDT Methods 340 (8)
11.2.3 Section Summary 348 (1)
11.3 Kevlar Laminates 349 (3)
11.3.1 Defect Types 349 (1)
11.3.2 NDT Methods 350 (1)
11.3.3 Section Summary 351 (1)
11.4 Fiber-Metal Laminates 352 (3)
11.4.1 Defect Types 352 (1)
11.4.2 NDT Methods 352 (3)
11.4.3 Section Summary 355 (1)
11.5 Honeycomb Sandwich Panels 355 (8)
11.5.1 Defect Types 356 (1)
11.5.2 NDT Methods 356 (6)
11.5.3 Section Summary 362 (1)
11.6 Foam-core Sandwich Panels 363 (2)
11.6.1 Defect Types 363 (1)
11.6.2 NDT Methods 363 (2)
11.6.3 Section Summary 365 (1)
11.7 Inspection of Adhesive Bonds 365 (5)
11.7.1 Defect Types 366 (1)
11.7.2 NDT Methods 367 (3)
11.7.3 Section Summary 370 (1)
11.8 Chapter References 370 (3)
12 NDT of Corrosion in Aluminum Airframe 373 (24)
Structures
12.1 Background 373 (1)
12.2 Corrosion Types 374 (2)
12.3 Aluminum Lap-joint Corrosion 376 (1)
12.4 NDT Methods for Lap-joint Corrosion 377 (9)
12.4.1 Optical Methods 378 (1)
12.4.2 Liquid Penetrant Inspection 379 (1)
12.4.3 Eddy Current 379 (2)
12.4.4 Ultrasonic Techniques 381 (3)
12.4.5 Radiography 384 (1)
12.4.6 Thermal Methods 385 (1)
12.5 Corrosion Verification Tests 386 (2)
12.6 NDT Metrics for Corrosion 388 (3)
12.6.1 Average Thickness Loss 389 (1)
12.6.2 Surface Pitting 389 (1)
12.6.3 Cracks 390 (1)
12.6.4 Surface Pillowing 390 (1)
12.6.5 Exfoliation 391 (1)
12.7 Chapter Summary 391 (2)
12.8 Chapter References 393 (4)
13 NDT Reliability 397 (72)
13.1 Background 397 (2)
13.2 Experimental Demonstration of NDT 399 (12)
Reliability
13.2.1 NDT System Definition 399 (1)
13.2.2 Design of Experiments 400 (2)
13.2.3 Demonstration Tests 402 (1)
13.2.4 Statistical Analysis 403 (8)
13.2.5 Documentation of Results 411 (1)
13.3 Model-assisted POD 411 (2)
13.4 Examples of NDT Reliability Studies 413 (51)
13.4.1 POD Development using Actual 414 (10)
Life-expired Parts with Service-induced
Cracks
13.4.2 POD Development using Actual 424 (6)
Parts with Artificial Damage
13.4.3 POD Development using 430 (8)
Representative Specimens with
Artificial Discontinuities
13.4.4 POD Development using Generic 438 (8)
Test Blocks with Artificial Defects
13.4.5 POD Estimation from Data 446 (6)
Generated during NDT Procedure
Development
13.4.6 POD Estimation using Field 452 (5)
Inspection Data
13.4.7 POD Estimation using Modeling 457 (7)
with Limited Experiments
13.5 Chapter References 464 (5)
Index 469 (10)
About the Author 479

[关闭窗口]