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Advanced Carbon Materials and Technology

作者: Ashutosh Tiwari 出版社: John Wiley & Sons Inc
ISBN: 9781118686232分类号: TB383 /A244c
出版时间: 2014-03-18有456人浏览

Advanced Carbon Materials and Technology

[Book Description]

The expansion of carbon materials is multidisciplinary and is related to physics, chemistry, biology, applied sciences and engineering. The research on carbon materials has mostly focused on aspects of fundamental physics as they unique electrical, thermal and mechanical properties applicable for the range of applications. The electrons in graphene and other derived carbon materials behave as dirac fermions due to their interaction with the ions of the lattice. This direction has led to the discovery of new phenomena such as Klein tunneling in carbon based solid state systems and the so-called half-integer quantum Hall effect. Advanced Carbon Materials and Technology presents cutting-edge chapters on the processing, properties and technological developments of graphene, carbon nanotubes, carbon fibers, carbon particles and other carbon based structures including multifunctional graphene sheets, graphene quantum dots, bulky balls, carbon balls, and their polymer composites. This book brings together respected international scholars writing on the innovative methodologies and strategies adopted in carbon materials research area including Synthesis, characterization and functionalization of carbon nanotubes and graphene Surface modification of graphene Carbon based nanostructured materials Graphene and carbon nanotube based electrochemical (bio)sensors for environmental monitoring Carbon catalysts for hydrogen storage materials Optical carbon nanoobjects Graphene and carbon nanotube based biosensors Carbon doped cryogel films Bioimpact of carbon nanomaterials Photocatalytic nature of carbon nanotube based composites Engineering behavior of ash fills Fly ash syntactic foams microstructure

[Table of Contents]
Preface                                            xiii
Part 1 Graphene, Carbon Nanotubes and Fullerenes 1 (272)
1 Synthesis, Characterization and 3 (32)
Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes and
Graphene: A Glimpse of Their Application
Mahe Talat
O.N. Srivastava
1.1 Introduction 4 (1)
1.2 Synthesis and Characterization of 5 (6)
Carbon Nanotubes
1.3 Synthesis and Characterization of 11 (3)
Graphene
1.3.1 Micromechanical Cleavage of 11 (1)
Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite
1.3.2 Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth 11 (2)
of Graphene either as Stand Alone or on
Substrate
1.3.3 Chemical and Thermal Exfoliation 13 (1)
of Graphite Oxide
1.3.4 Arc-Discharge Method 14 (1)
1.4 Methods Used in Our Lab: CVD, Thermal 14 (5)
Exfoliation, Arc Discharge and Chemical
Reduction
1.4.1 Raman Spectra 16 (2)
1.4.2 Electrochemical Exfoliation 18 (1)
1.5 Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes 19 (5)
and Graphene
1.5.1 Covalent Functionalization 20 (1)
1.5.2 Non-Covalent Functionalization 21 (2)
1.5.3 FTIR Analysis of CNTs and FCNTs 23 (1)
1.6 Applications 24 (5)
1.7 Conclusion 29 (1)
Acknowledgements 29 (1)
References 30 (5)
2 Surface Modification of Graphene 35 (52)
Tapas Kuila
Priyabrata Banerjee
Naresh Chandra Murmu
2.1 Introduction 36 (3)
2.2 Surface-Modified Graphene from GO 39 (31)
2.2.1 Covalent Surface Modification 39 (21)
2.2.2 Non-covalent Surface Modification 60 (10)
2.3 Application of Surface-Modified 70 (5)
Graphene
2.3.1 Polymer Composites 71 (1)
2.3.2 Sensors 72 (1)
2.3.3 Drug Delivery System 73 (1)
2.3.4 Lubricants 73 (1)
2.3.5 Nanofluids 74 (1)
2.3.6 Supercapacitor 75 (1)
2.4 Conclusions and Future Directions of 75 (2)
Research
Acknowledgement 77 (1)
References 77 (10)
3 Graphene and Carbon Nanotube-based 87 (42)
Electrochemical Biosensors for Environmental
Monitoring
G. Alarcon-Angeles
G.A. チlvarez-Romero
A. Merko輅
3.1 Introduction 88 (9)
3.1.1 Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) 88 (3)
3.1.2 Graphene (GR) 91 (2)
3.1.3 Electrochemical Sensors 93 (1)
3.1.4 Sensors and Biosensors Based on 94 (3)
CNT and GR
3.2 Applications of Electrochemical 97 (24)
Biosensors
3.2.1 Heavy Metals 97 (6)
3.2.2 Phenols 103 (6)
3.2.3 Pesticides 109 (12)
3.3 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 121 (1)
References 121 (8)
4 Catalytic Application of Carbon-based 129 (44)
Nanostructured Materials on Hydrogen Sorption
Behavior of Light Metal Hydrides
Rohit R. Shahi
O.N. Srivastava
4.1 Introduction 130 (3)
4.2 Different Carbon Allotropes 133 (2)
4.3 Carbon Nanomaterials as Catalyst for 135 (2)
Different Storage Materials
4.4 Key Results with MgH2, NaAlH4 and 137 (27)
Li-Mg-N-H Systems
4.4.1 Magnesium Hydride 137 (11)
4.4.2 Sodium Alanate 148 (9)
4.4.3 Amides/Imides 157 (7)
4.5 Summary 164 (1)
Acknowledgements 165 (1)
References 165 (8)
5 Carbon Nanotubes and Their Applications 173 (20)
Mohan Raja
J. Subha
5.1 Introduction 173 (1)
5.2 Carbon Nanotubes Structure 174 (2)
5.3 Carbon Nanotube Physical Properties 176 (1)
5.4 Carbon Nanotube Synthesis and 177 (1)
Processing
5.5 Carbon Nanotube Surface Modification 178 (1)
5.6 Applications of Carbon Nanotubes 179 (8)
5.6.1 Composite Materials 179 (3)
5.6.2 Nano Coatings - Antimicrobials 182 (2)
and Microelectronics
5.6.3 Biosensors 184 (1)
5.6.4 Energy Storages 185 (2)
5.7 Conclusion 187 (1)
References 187 (6)
6 Bioimpact of Carbon Nanomaterials 193 (80)
A. Djordjevic
R. Injac
D. Jovic
J. Mrdjanovic
M. Seke
6.1 Biologically Active Fullerene 194 (25)
Derivatives
6.1.1 Introduction 194 (2)
6.1.2 Functionalization/Derivatization 196 (1)
of Fullerene C60
6.1.3 Biological Activity of 196 (1)
Non-Derivatized Fullerene C60
6.1.4 Biological Activity of 197 (4)
Derivatized Fullerene C60
6.1.5 Chemical Synthesis of Fullerenol 201 (1)
C60(OH)n
6.1.6 Fullerenol and Biosystems 202 (17)
6.2 Biologically Active Graphene Materials 219 (11)
6.2.1 Chemical Synthesis and 219 (3)
Characterization of Important
Biologically Active Graphene Materials
6.2.2 Biologically Active Graphene 222 (8)
Materials
6.3 Bioimpact of Carbon Nanotubes 230 (8)
6.3.1 Introduction 230 (1)
6.3.2 Properties of CNTs 231 (1)
6.3.3 Classification of CNTs 231 (1)
6.3.4 Synthesis of CNTs 231 (1)
6.3.5 Functionalization of CNTs 232 (1)
6.3.6 Drug (Molecule/Gene/Antibody) 232 (4)
Delivery, Targeting, Drug Release
6.3.7 Toxicity 236 (1)
6.3.8 The Fate of CNTs 237 (1)
6.4 Genotoxicity of Carbon Nanomaterials 238 (9)
6.4.1 Genotoxicity of Graphene in In 239 (3)
Vitro and In Vivo Models
6.4.2 Genotoxicity of SWNT and MWNT 242 (2)
6.4.3 Genotoxicity of Polyhydroxylated 244 (2)
Fullerene Derivatives
6.4.4 Conclusion 246 (1)
6.5 Ecotoxicological Effects of Carbon 247 (4)
Nanomaterials
References 251 (22)
Part 2 Composite Materials 273 (104)
7 Advanced Optical Materials Modified with 275 (42)
Carbon Nano-Objects
Natalia V. Kamanina
7.1 Introduction 275 (4)
7.2 Photorefractive Features of the 279 (18)
Organic Materials with Carbon
Nanoparticles
7.3 Homeotropic Alignment of the Nematic 297 (6)
Liquid Crystals Using Carbon Nanotubes
7.4 Thin Film Polarization Elements and 303 (4)
Their Nanostructurization via CNTs
7.5 Spectral and Mechanical Properties of 307 (3)
the Inorganic Materials via CNTs
Application
7.6 Conclusion 310 (1)
Acknowledgments 311 (1)
References 312 (5)
8 Covalent and Non-Covalent Functionalization 317 (14)
of Carbon Nanotubes
Tawfik A. Saleh
Vinod K. Gupta
8.1 Introduction 317 (1)
8.2 Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes 318 (1)
8.3 Covalent Functionalization 318 (2)
8.4 Non-Covalent Functionalization 320 (1)
8.5 Functionalization of CNT with 320 (6)
Nanoparticles
8.5.1 Applications of the CNT-Based 324 (1)
Nanocomposites
8.5.2 Nanocomposites as Photocatalysts 324 (1)
8.5.3 Nanocomposites as Adsorbents 325 (1)
8.6 Conclusion 326 (1)
Acknowledgment 327 (1)
References 327 (4)
9 Metal Matrix Nanocomposites Reinforced with 331 (46)
Carbon Nanotubes
Praveennath G. Koppad
Vikas Kumar Singh
C.S. Ramesh
Ravikiran G. Koppad
K.T. Kashyap
9.1 Introduction 332 (1)
9.2 Carbon Nanotubes 333 (5)
9.3 Processing and Microstructural 338 (15)
Characterization of Metal Matrix
Nanocomposites
9.3.1 Powder Metallurgy 339 (4)
9.3.2 Electroless and Electrodeposition 343 (3)
Techniques
9.3.3 Spray Forming 346 (3)
9.3.4 Liquid Metallurgy 349 (1)
9.3.5 Other Techniques 350 (3)
9.4 Mechanical Properties of Carbon 353 (8)
Nanotube Reinforced Metal Matrix
Nanocomposites
9.4.1 CNT/Al Nanocomposites 353 (3)
9.4.2 CNT/Cu Nanocomposites 356 (3)
9.4.3 CNT/Mg Nanocomposites 359 (1)
9.4.4 CNT/Ti Nanocomposites 360 (1)
9.5 Strengthening Mechanisms 361 (2)
9.6 Thermal Properties of Carbon Nanotube 363 (3)
Reinforced Metal Matrix Nanocomposites
9.7 Tribological Properties of Carbon 366 (2)
Nanotube Reinforced Metal Matrix
Nanocomposites
9.8 Challenges 368 (3)
9.9 Concluding Remarks 371 (1)
References 371 (6)
Part 3 Fly Ash Engineering and Cryogels 377 (110)
10 Aluminum/Fly Ash Syntactic Foams: 379 (40)
Synthesis, Microstructure and Properties
Dung D. Luong
Nikhil Gupta
Pradeep K. Rohatgi
10.1 Introduction 380 (2)
10.2 Hollow Particles 382 (6)
10.2.1 Fly Ash Cenospheres 382 (2)
10.2.2 Engineered Hollow Particles 384 (4)
10.3 Synthesis Methods 388 (5)
10.3.1 Stir Mixing 388 (1)
10.3.2 Infiltration Methods 389 (2)
10.3.3 Comparison of Synthesis Methods 391 (2)
10.4 Microstructure of Aluminum/Fly Ash 393 (5)
Composites
10.5 Properties of Aluminum/Fly Ash 398 (11)
Syntactic Foams
10.6 Applications 409 (2)
10.7 Conclusion 411 (1)
Acknowledgments 412 (1)
References 412 (7)
11 Engineering Behavior of Ash Fills 419 (56)
Ashutosh Trivedi
11.1 Background 420 (19)
11.1.1 Physico-Chemical Characterization 420 (1)
11.1.2 Engineering Characteristics 421 (18)
11.2 Engineering Evaluation of Cemented 439 (7)
Ash Fill
11.2.1 Measurement of Cemented Ash 439 (1)
Characteristics: Application of RQD
11.2.2 Concept of Strength Ratio and 440 (2)
Modulus Ratio
11.2.3 Evaluation of Joint Parameters 442 (1)
11.2.4 Relationship of RQD and Joint 443 (1)
Parameters
11.2.5 Steps to Obtain Deformations 444 (2)
from the Present Technique
11.3 Problems of Uncemented Ash Fill 446 (7)
11.3.1 Collapse, Piping and Erosion, 446 (2)
Liquefaction
11.3.2 Collapse Behavior of Ash Fills 448 (5)
11.4 Ash as a Structural Fill 453 (17)
11.4.1 Penetration Test 454 (1)
11.4.2 Load Test 455 (2)
11.4.3 Test Setup for Ash Fills and 457 (3)
Testing Technique
11.4.4 Bearing Capacity of Ash Fill 460 (3)
11.4.5 Settlement of Ash Fills by PLT 463 (1)
11.4.6 Settlement on Ash Fills by PLT, 464 (2)
CPT and SPT
11.4.7 Settlement of Footings on Ash 466 (4)
Deposit
11.5 Conclusions 470 (1)
Salutations, Acknowledgement and 470 (1)
Disclaimer
References 471 (4)
12 Carbon-Doped Cryogel Thin Films Derived 475 (12)
from Resorcinol Formaldehyde
Z. Markovic
D. Kleut
B. Babic
I. Holclajtner-Antunovic
V. Pavlovic
B. Todorovic-Markovic
12.1 Introduction 476 (1)
12.2 Experimental Procedure 476 (1)
12.3 Results and Discussion 477 (6)
12.3.1 FTIR Analysis 477 (1)
12.3.2 Raman Analysis 478 (3)
12.3.3 Surface Morphology of 481 (2)
Carbon-Doped RF Cryogel Thin Films
12.4 Conclusion 483 (1)
Acknowledgements 484 (1)
References 484 (3)
Index 487
 

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