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Commercial Airplane Design Principles

作者: Pasquale M. Sforza 出版社: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd
ISBN: 9780124199538分类号: V221 /S523
出版时间: 2014-04-05有339人浏览

Commercial Airplane Design Principles

[Book Description]

Commercial Airplane Design Principles is a succinct, focused text covering all the information required at the preliminary stage of aircraft design: initial sizing and weight estimation, fuselage design, engine selection, aerodynamic analysis, stability and control, drag estimation, performance analysis, and economic analysis. The text places emphasis on making informed choices from an array of competing options, and developing the confidence to do so. * Shows the use of standard, empirical, and classical methods in support of the design process * Explains the preparation of a professional quality design report* Provides a sample outline of a design report * Can be used in conjunction with Sforza, Commercial Aircraft Design Principles to form a complete course in Aircraft/Spacecraft Design

[Table of Contents]
Preface                                            xv
Introduction xvii
Chapter 1 Market Survey and Mission 1 (20)
Specification
1.1 A growing market for commercial aircraft 1 (5)
1.2 Technology drivers 6 (10)
1.2.1 Fuel efficiency 7 (2)
1.2.2 Weight reduction 9 (1)
1.2.3 Drag reduction 10 (1)
1.2.4 Engine design 10 (1)
1.2.5 Carbon footprint 11 (1)
1.2.6 Biofuels 12 (1)
1.2.7 Alternative fuels and power sources 13 (1)
1.2.8 Noise and vibration 13 (3)
1.3 Cargo aircraft 16 (1)
1.4 Design summary 17 (3)
1.4.1 Mission specification 17 (1)
1.4.2 The market survey 17 (3)
References 20 (1)
Chapter 2 Preliminary Weight Estimation 21 (26)
2.1 The mission specification 21 (1)
2.2 The mission profile 22 (2)
2.3 Weight components 24 (10)
2.3.1 Gross, takeoff, and operating empty 24 (1)
weights
2.3.2 Passenger and crew weights 24 (2)
2.3.3 Cargo weight 26 (1)
2.3.4 Fuel weight 26 (3)
2.3.5 Fuel consumption by mission segment 29 (1)
2.3.6 Fuel consumption in segments other 29 (2)
than cruise
2.3.7 Fuel consumption in cruise 31 (1)
2.3.8 Selection of cruise performance 32 (2)
characteristics
2.4 Empty weight trends 34 (2)
2.5 Fuel characteristics 36 (2)
2.6 Estimation of the takeoff and empty 38 (1)
weights
2.6.1 New materials for weight reduction 39 (1)
2.7 Weight estimation for turboprop-powered 39 (3)
aircraft
2.7.1 Fuel weight estimation for turboprop 40 (1)
airliners
2.7.2 Empty weight estimation for turboprop 40 (2)
airliners
2.8 Design summary 42 (2)
2.9 Nomenclature 44 (1)
2.9.1 Subscript 44 (1)
References 44 (3)
Chapter 3 Fuselage Design 47 (34)
3.1 Introduction 47 (1)
3.2 Commercial aircraft cabin volume and 48 (4)
pressure
3.2.1 Cabin volume 49 (2)
3.2.2 Cabin pressure 51 (1)
3.3 General cabin layout 52 (1)
3.4 Cabin cross-section 53 (3)
3.5 Estimation of fuselage width 56 (1)
3.6 Estimation of fuselage length 57 (3)
3.7 Influence of fuselage fineness ratio 60 (5)
3.7.1 Fuselage effects on drag 60 (4)
3.7.2 Fuselage effect on lift 64 (1)
3.8 Estimation of nose cone and tail cone 65 (1)
length
3.9 Cargo containers 66 (2)
3.10 Emergency exits 68 (2)
3.11 Recent developments in fuselage design 70 (5)
3.12 Design summary 75 (3)
3.13 Nomenclature 78 (1)
3.13.1 Subscripts 78 (1)
References 79 (2)
Chapter 4 Engine Selection 81 (38)
4.1 Introduction 81 (1)
4.2 Landing requirements 82 (2)
4.3 Wing loading in landing 84 (1)
4.4 Landing field length 85 (2)
4.5 Wing loading in takeoff 87 (3)
4.6 Takeoff distance 90 (5)
4.7 Cruise requirements 95 (1)
4.8 Construction of the engine selection 96 (3)
design chart
4.9 Flight test data for landing and power 99 (2)
approach
4.10 Turbojet and turbofan engines 101 (6)
4.10.1 Dual shaft turbojet 101 (1)
4.10.2 Dual shaft high bypass turbofan 101 (3)
4.10.3 Determination of net thrust 104 (1)
4.10.4 Net thrust in takeoff 105 (1)
4.10.5 Net thrust in cruise 106 (1)
4.10.6 Specific fuel consumption in cruise 106 (1)
4.11 Turboprops 107 (6)
4.11.1 Takeoff distance 109 (1)
4.11.2 Turboprop cruise requirements 109 (3)
4.11.3 Estimating takeoff thrust and 112 (1)
specific fuel consumption
4.12 Engine-out operation and balanced field 113 (2)
length
4.13 Design summary 115 (1)
4.14 Nomenclature 116 (2)
4.14.1 Subscripts 117 (1)
References 118 (1)
Chapter 5 Wing Design 119 (94)
5.1 General wing planform characteristics 120 (6)
5.1.1 The straight-tapered wing planform 122 (1)
5.1.2 Cranked wing planform 123 (3)
5.1.3 Wing dihedral 126 (1)
5.2 General airfoil characteristics 126 (17)
5.2.1 Airfoil sections 128 (2)
5.2.2 Airfoils at angle of attack 130 (3)
5.2.3 Airfoil selection 133 (4)
5.2.4 Compressibility effects on airfoils 137 (5)
5.2.5 Computational resources for airfoil 142 (1)
analysis and design
5.3 Lifting characteristics of the wing 143 (2)
5.3.1 Determination of the wing lift curve 143 (1)
slope
5.3.2 Sample calculation of the wing lift 144 (1)
curve slope
5.4 Determination of wing maximum lift in the 145 (19)
cruise configuration
5.4.1 Subsonic maximum lift of 146 (1)
high-aspect-ratio wings
5.4.2 DATCOM method for untwisted, 147 (3)
constant-section wings
5.4.3 Sample calculation for an untwisted, 150 (1)
constant-section wing
5.4.4 Maximum lift of unswept twisted wings 151 (1)
with varying airfoil sections
5.4.5 Reynolds number in flight 152 (2)
5.4.6 Maximum lift of swept and twisted 154 (4)
wings with varying airfoil sections
5.4.7 A simple modified lifting line theory 158 (2)
for CL,ma
5.4.8 Comparison of span loading and the 160 (2)
modified lifting line methods
5.4.9 The pressure difference rule for 162 (2)
CL,max
5.5 High lift devices 164 (17)
5.5.1 Airfoil with trailing edge flaps 167 (3)
5.5.2 DATCOM method for trailing edge flaps 170 (2)
5.5.3 Sample calculation of airfoil with a 172 (1)
trailing edge flap
5.5.4 Airfoil with leading edge slats or 173 (1)
flaps
5.5.5 DATCOM method for leading edge slats 174 (3)
and flaps
5.5.6 Sample calculations of airfoil with a 177 (2)
leading edge slat
5.5.7 Combining leading and trailing edge 179 (2)
devices on airfoils
5.6 Determination of CL,max for the wing in 181 (10)
takeoff and landing configurations
5.6.1 Application of high lift devices on 181 (5)
wings
5.6.2 Determination of ΔCL,max for 186 (1)
the wing due to flaps
5.6.3 Determination of ΔCL,max for 187 (2)
the wing due to slats
5.6.4 Sample calculation for flaps and slats 189 (2)
5.7 Development and layout of the preliminary 191 (14)
wing design
5.7.1 Aspect ratio 191 (2)
5.7.2 Taper ratio and the root chord 193 (2)
5.7.3 Wing relative thickness and airfoil 195 (2)
selection
5.7.4 Wing-mounted engines and a cranked 197 (1)
trailing edge
5.7.5 Placement of high lift devices 198 (1)
5.7.6 Wingtip treatments 199 (2)
5.7.7 Winglets 201 (2)
5.7.8 Raked wingtips 203 (1)
5.7.9 Wing dihedral and incidence 204 (1)
5.8 Design summary 205 (3)
5.9 Nomenclature 208 (2)
5.9.1 Subscripts 209 (1)
References 210 (3)
Chapter 6 Tail Design 213 (38)
6.1 Preliminary tail design 213 (8)
6.1.1 Tail surface characteristics 215 (2)
6.1.2 Preliminary tail sizing 217 (4)
6.2 Refined horizontal tail design 221 (14)
6.2.1 Equilibrium conditions 221 (3)
6.2.2 Trim and longitudinal static stability 224 (1)
6.2.3 The stick-fixed neutral point 225 (4)
6.2.4 The stick-fixed static margin 229 (1)
6.2.5 Estimate of horizontal tail area 230 (5)
based on a stability requirement
6.3 Refined vertical tail design 235 (13)
6.3.1 Equilibrium conditions 235 (3)
6.3.2 Trim and lateral static stability 238 (3)
6.3.3 Horizontal and vertical tail placement 241 (4)
6.3.4 Example calculation of vertical tail 245 (3)
stability derivative
6.4 Design summary 248 (1)
6.5 Nomenclature 248 (2)
6.5.1 Subscripts 250 (1)
References 250 (1)
Chapter 7 Landing Gear Design 251 (50)
7.1 Introduction 251 (1)
7.2 General characteristics of commercial jet 252 (16)
transport landing gear
7.2.1 Quasi-static loads on landing gear 252 (2)
7.2.2 Dynamic loads in landing 254 (3)
7.2.3 Location of the main gear 257 (2)
7.2.4 Location of the nose gear 259 (2)
7.2.5 Ground clearance in takeoff and 261 (3)
landing
7.2.6 Operational considerations for 264 (2)
positioning the landing gear
7.2.7 Maneuverability in ground operations 266 (1)
7.2.8 Powered wheel-drive systems 267 (1)
7.3 Aircraft tires and wheels 268 (9)
7.3.1 Load requirements 271 (4)
7.3.2 Landing gear configurations 275 (2)
7.4 Shock absorbing landing gear struts 277 (10)
7.4.1 Sizing the landing gear struts 280 (3)
7.4.2 Dynamic landing gear analysis 283 (2)
7.4.3 Landing gear strut design example 285 (2)
7.5 Landing gear brake systems 287 (8)
7.5.1 Tire, wheel, and brake selection 293 (2)
example
7.6 Landing gear retraction 295 (3)
7.7 Design summary 298 (1)
7.8 Nomenclature 298 (2)
7.8.1 Subscripts 300 (1)
References 300 (1)
Chapter 8 Refined Weight and Balance Estimate 301 (48)
8.1 Process for refining the weight estimate 302 (1)
8.2 Limit load factor 302 (1)
8.3 The design dive speed 303 (2)
8.4 Wing group weight 305 (3)
8.5 Fuselage group weight 308 (2)
8.6 Landing gear group weight 310 (2)
8.7 Tail group weight 312 (2)
8.8 Propulsion group weight 314 (1)
8.9 Nacelle group weight 315 (3)
8.10 Flight controls group weight 318 (2)
8.11 Auxiliary power unit group weight 320 (4)
8.11.1 Torenbeek's correlation 322 (1)
8.11.2 Modified correlation 322 (1)
8.11.3 Kroo's correlation 322 (1)
8.11.4 Relating APU group weight to 322 (2)
aircraft gross weight
8.12 Instrument group weight 324 (1)
8.13 Hydraulic and pneumatic group weight 325 (1)
8.14 Electrical group weight 326 (2)
8.14.1 The all-electric airplane 327 (1)
8.14.2 "Greener" APUs 328 (1)
8.15 Avionics group weight 328 (1)
8.16 Equipment and furnishing group weight 329 (2)
8.17 Air conditioning and anti-icing group 331 (1)
weight
8.18 Wing group center of gravity 332 (2)
8.19 Fuselage group center of gravity 334 (3)
8.20 Landing gear group center of gravity 337 (1)
8.21 Tail group center of gravity 337 (1)
8.22 Propulsion group center of gravity 338 (1)
8.23 Aircraft center of gravity 339 (5)
8.24 Design summary 344 (1)
8.25 Nomenclature 345 (2)
8.25.1 Subscripts 346 (1)
References 347 (2)
Chapter 9 Drag Estimation 349 (56)
9.1 Introduction 350 (1)
9.2 Skin friction drag 351 (8)
9.2.1 Laminar flow 351 (1)
9.2.2 Turbulent flow 352 (2)
9.2.3 Compressibility effects on skin 354 (1)
friction
9.2.4 Surface roughness effects on skin 355 (2)
friction
9.2.5 The equivalent flat plate for 357 (2)
calculating component drag
9.3 Form drag 359 (1)
9.4 Drag build-up by components 360 (2)
9.5 Wing and tail drag 362 (6)
9.5.1 Effect of boundary layer transition 366 (2)
on wing and tail drag
9.5.2 Wing and tail wetted areas 368 (1)
9.6 Fuselage drag 368 (2)
9.7 Nacelle and pylon drag 370 (2)
9.8 Landing gear drag 372 (1)
9.9 Flap and slat drag 372 (1)
9.10 Other drag sources 373 (1)
9.11 Calculation of the zero-lift drag 373 (3)
coefficient neglecting wave drag
9.12 Compressibility drag at high subsonic 376 (2)
and low transonic speeds
9.13 The area rule 378 (1)
9.14 Calculation of the wave drag coefficient 379 (9)
9.14.1 Perkins and Hage method 379 (4)
9.14.2 Shevell Method 383 (1)
9.14.3 DATCOM method 384 (2)
9.14.4 Korn equation method 386 (1)
9.14.5 Evaluation of the methods 386 (2)
9.15 Effects of sweepback 388 (5)
9.15.1 Practical sweepback corrections for 391 (1)
the estimation methods
9.15.2 Other three-dimensional wing effects 392 (1)
9.16 The drag coefficient of the airplane 393 (3)
9.17 Thrust available and thrust required 396 (4)
9.18 Design summary 400 (1)
9.19 Nomenclature 400 (3)
9.19.1 Subscripts 402 (1)
References 403 (2)
Chapter 10 Aircraft Performance 405 (48)
10.1 The range equation 406 (3)
10.1.1 Factors influencing range 408 (1)
10.2 Takeoff performance 409 (20)
10.2.1 Ground run 410 (7)
10.2.2 Air run 417 (2)
10.2.3 Approximate solution for takeoff 419 (1)
10.2.4 Speeds during the takeoff run 420 (2)
10.2.5 Continued takeoff with single engine 422 (3)
failure
10.2.6 Aborted takeoff with single engine 425 (2)
failure
10.2.7 The balanced field length 427 (2)
10.3 Climb 429 (4)
10.3.1 Climb profile 430 (1)
10.3.2 Time to climb 431 (1)
10.3.3 Distance to climb 432 (1)
10.3.4 Fuel to climb 433 (1)
10.4 Descent 433 (2)
10.4.1 Descent profile and performance 434 (1)
10.4.2 Time to descend 434 (1)
10.4.3 Distance to descend 435 (1)
10.4.4 Fuel to descend 435 (1)
10.5 Landing 435 (5)
10.5.1 Air run 435 (2)
10.5.2 Ground run 437 (3)
10.6 Turboprop-powered aircraft 440 (6)
10.6.1 Turboprop range 440 (1)
10.6.2 Turboprop takeoff ground run 441 (1)
10.6.3 Turboprop takeoff air run 441 (1)
10.6.4 Approximate solution for turboprop 442 (1)
takeoff
10.6.5 Turboprop propeller characteristics 442 (2)
10.6.6 Selecting a propeller 444 (2)
10.7 The air data system 446 (3)
10.8 Design summary 449 (1)
10.9 Nomenclature 449 (3)
10.9.1 Subscripts 451 (1)
References 452 (1)
Chapter 11 Aircraft Pricing and Economic 453 (24)
Analysis
11.1 Introduction 453 (1)
11.2 Capital cost 454 (5)
11.3 Direct operating cost 459 (9)
11.3.1 Block speed 460 (1)
11.3.2 Block fuel 461 (1)
11.3.3 Flight crew costs 461 (1)
11.3.4 Fuel and oil costs 462 (2)
11.3.5 Hull insurance 464 (1)
11.3.6 Airframe maintenance labor and 464 (2)
materials
11.3.7 Engine maintenance labor and 466 (1)
materials
11.3.8 Maintenance burden 467 (1)
11.3.9 Depreciation 467 (1)
11.3.10 Direct operating cost 468 (1)
11.4 Indirect operating cost 468 (3)
11.5 Breakeven load factor 471 (2)
11.6 Design project activity 473 (1)
11.7 Nomenclature 473 (1)
11.7.1 Subscripts 474 (1)
References 474 (3)
Appendix A Airfoil Characteristics 477 (10)
Appendix B 1976 US Standard Atmosphere Model 487 (10)
Appendix C Airfoil and Wing Theory and Analysis 497 (64)
Appendix D Graphs of Critical Mach Number 561 (4)
Appendix E Units and Conversion Factors 565 (6)
Appendix F General Database for Commercial 571 (14)
Aircraft
Index 585

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