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Pulse-width modulated DC-DC power converters

作者: Marian K. Kazimierczuk 出版社: Wiley
ISBN: 9781119009542分类号: TM464 /K23-2
出版时间: 2015-10-26有278人浏览

 

【内容简介】

PWM DC-DC power converter technology underpins many energy conversion systems including renewable energy circuits, active power factor correctors, battery chargers, portable devices and LED drivers. 

Following the success of Pulse-Width Modulated DC-DC Power Convertersthis second edition has been thoroughly revised and expanded to cover the latest challenges and advances in the field.

Key features of 2nd edition

  • Four new chapters, detailing the latest advances in power conversion, focus on: small-signal model and dynamic characteristics of the buck converter in continuous conduction mode; voltage-mode control of buck converter; small-signal model and characteristics of the boost converter in the discontinuous conduction mode and electromagnetic compatibility EMC.
  • Provides readers with a solid understanding of the principles of operation, synthesis, analysis and design of PWM power converters and semiconductor power devices, including wide band-gap power devices (SiC and GaN).
  • Fully revised Solutions for all end-of-chapter problems available to instructors via the book companion website.
  • Step-by-step derivation of closed-form design equations with illustrations.
  • Fully revised figures based on real data. 

With improved end-of-chapter summaries of key concepts, review questions, problems and answers, biographies and case studies, this is an essential textbook for graduate and senior undergraduate students in electrical engineering. Its superior readability and clarity of explanations also makes it a key reference for practicing engineers and research scientists. 

 【目录】

Preface xxiii

Nomenclature xxv

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Classification of Power Supplies 1

1.2 Basic Functions of Voltage Regulators 3

1.3 Power Relationships in DC–DC Converters 4

1.4 DC Transfer Functions of DC–DC Converters 5

1.5 Static Characteristics of DC Voltage Regulators 6

1.6 Dynamic Characteristics of DC Voltage Regulators 9

1.7 Linear Voltage Regulators 12

1.8 Topologies of PWM DC–DC Converters 16

1.9 Relationships Among Current, Voltage, Energy, and Power 18

1.10 Summary 19

References 19

Review Questions 20

Problems 21

2 Buck PWM DC–DC Converter 22

2.1 Introduction 22

2.2 DC Analysis of PWM Buck Converter for CCM 22

2.3 DC Analysis of PWM Buck Converter for DCM 52

2.4 Buck Converter with Input Filter 68

2.5 Buck Converter with Synchronous Rectifier 68

2.6 Buck Converter with Positive Common Rail 76

2.7 Quadratic Buck Converter 76

2.8 Tapped-Inductor Buck Converters 79

2.9 Multiphase Buck Converter 83

2.10 Switched-Inductor Buck Converter 85

2.11 Layout 85

2.12 Summary 85

References 87

Review Questions 88

Problems 88

3 Boost PWM DC–DC Converter 90

3.1 Introduction 90

3.2 DC Analysis of PWM Boost Converter for CCM 90

3.3 DC Analysis of PWM Boost Converter for DCM 107

3.4 Bidirectional Buck and Boost Converters 127

3.5 Synchronous Boost Converter 129

3.6 Tapped-Inductor Boost Converters 129

3.7 Duality 133

3.8 Power Factor Correction 134

3.9 Summary 141

References 142

Review Questions 143

Problems 143

4 Buck–Boost PWM DC–DC Converter 145

4.1 Introduction 145

4.2 DC Analysis of PWM Buck–Boost Converter for CCM 145

4.3 DC Analysis of PWM Buck–Boost Converter for DCM 162

4.4 Bidirectional Buck–Boost Converter 180

4.5 Synthesis of Buck–Boost Converter 181

4.6 Synthesis of Boost–Buck (C´ uk) Converter 183

4.7 Noninverting Buck–Boost Converters 184

4.8 Tapped-Inductor Buck–Boost Converters 186

4.9 Summary 192

References 192

Review Questions 193

Problems 193

5 Flyback PWM DC–DC Converter 195

5.1 Introduction 195

5.2 Transformers 196

5.3 DC Analysis of PWM Flyback Converter for CCM 197

5.4 DC Analysis of PWM Flyback Converter for DCM 214

5.5 Multiple-Output Flyback Converter 232

5.6 Bidirectional Flyback Converter 237

5.7 Ringing in Flyback Converter 237

5.8 Flyback Converter with Passive Dissipative Snubber 240

5.9 Flyback Converter with Zener Diode Voltage Clamp 240

5.10 Flyback Converter with Active Clamping 241

5.11 Two-Transistor Flyback Converter 241

5.12 Summary 243

References 244

Review Questions 244

Problems 245

6 Forward PWM DC–DC Converter 246

6.1 Introduction 246

6.2 DC Analysis of PWM Forward Converter for CCM 246

6.3 DC Analysis of PWM Forward Converter for DCM 269

6.4 Multiple-Output Forward Converter 288

6.5 Forward Converter with Synchronous Rectifier 288

6.6 Forward Converters with Active Clamping 288

6.7 Two-Switch Forward Converter 290

6.8 Forward–Flyback Converter 291

6.9 Summary 292

References 293

Review Questions 293

Problems 294

7 Half-Bridge PWM DC–DC Converter 296

7.1 Introduction 296

7.2 DC Analysis of PWM Half-Bridge Converter for CCM 296

7.3 DC Analysis of PWM Half-Bridge Converter for DCM 315

7.4 Summary 326

References 327

Review Questions 327

Problems 328

8 Full-Bridge PWM DC–DC Converter 330

8.1 Introduction 330

8.2 DC Analysis of PWM Full-Bridge Converter for CCM 330

8.3 DC Analysis of PWM Full-Bridge Converter for DCM 351

8.4 Phase-Controlled Full-Bridge Converter 361

8.5 Summary 362

References 362

Review Questions 362

Problems 363

9 Small-Signal Models of PWM Converters for CCM and DCM 365

9.1 Introduction 365

9.2 Assumptions 366

9.3 Averaged Model of Ideal Switching Network for CCM 366

9.4 Averaged Values of Switched Resistances 369

9.5 Model Reduction 375

9.6 Large-Signal Averaged Model for CCM 377

9.7 DC and Small-Signal Circuit Linear Models of Switching Network for CCM 381

9.8 Block Diagram of Small-signal Model of PWM DC–DC Converters 385

9.9 Family of PWM Converter Models for CCM 386

9.10 PWM Small-Signal Switch Model for CCM 389

9.11 Modeling of Ideal Switching Network for DCM 391

9.12 Averaged Parasitic Resistances for DCM 398

9.13 Summary 400

References 402

Review Questions 405

Problems 405

10 Small-Signal Characteristics of Buck Converter for CCM 407

10.1 Introduction 407

10.2 Small-Signal Model of the PWM Buck Converter 407

10.3 Open-Loop Transfer Functions 408

10.4 Open-Loop Step Responses 426

10.5 Open-Loop DC Transfer Functions 434

10.6 Summary 436

References 436

Review Questions 437

Problems 438

11 Small-Signal Characteristics of Boost Converter for CCM 439

11.1 Introduction 439

11.2 DC Characteristics 439

11.3 Open-Loop Control-to-Output Transfer Function 440

11.4 Delay in Open-Loop Control-to-Output Transfer Function 449

11.5 Open-Loop Audio Susceptibility 451

11.6 Open-Loop Input Impedance 455

11.7 Open-Loop Output Impedance 457

11.8 Open-Loop Step Responses 461

11.9 Summary 467

References 467

Review Questions 468

Problems 468

12 Voltage-Mode Control of PWM Buck Converter 470

12.1 Introduction 470

12.2 Properties of Negative Feedback 471

12.3 Stability 474

12.4 Single-Loop Control of PWM Buck Converter 475

12.5 Closed-Loop Small-Signal Model of Buck Converter 478

12.6 Pulse-Width Modulator 478

12.7 Feedback Network 483

12.8 Transfer Function of Buck Converter with Modulator and Feedback Network 486

12.9 Control Circuits 489

12.10 Closed-Loop Step Responses 511

12.11 Summary 518

References 519

Review Questions 519

Problems 520

13 Voltage-Mode Control of Boost Converter 521

13.1 Introduction 521

13.2 Circuit of Boost Converter with Voltage-Mode Control 521

13.3 Transfer Function of Modulator, Boost Converter Power Stage, and Feedback Network 523

13.4 Integral-Double-Lead Controller 527

13.5 Design of Integral-Double-Lead Controller 532

13.6 Loop Gain 536

13.7 Closed-Loop Control-to-Output Voltage Transfer Function 537

13.8 Closed-Loop Audio Susceptibility 539

13.9 Closed-Loop Input Impedance 539

13.10 Closed-Loop Output Impedance 542

13.11 Closed-Loop Step Responses 544

13.12 Closed-Loop DC Transfer Functions 549

13.13 Summary 552

References 552

Review Questions 552

Problems 553

14 Current-Mode Control 554

14.1 Introduction 554

14.2 Principle of Operation of PWM Converters with Peak CMC 555

14.3 Relationship Between Duty Cycle and Inductor-Current Slopes 559

14.4 Instability of Closed-Current Loop 560

14.5 Slope Compensation 564

14.6 Sample-and-Hold Effect on Current Loop 570

14.7 Closed-Loop Control Voltage-to-Inductor Current Transfer Function in s-Domain 580

14.8 Loop Gain of Current Loop 588

14.9 Gain-Crossover Frequency of Inner Loop 595

14.10 Phase Margin of Inner Loop 596

14.11 Maximum Duty Cycle for Converters Without Slope Compensation 598

14.12 Maximum Duty Cycle for Converters with Slope Compensation 600

14.13 Minimum Slope Compensation for Buck and Buck–Boost Converter 605

14.14 Minimum Slope Compensation for Boost Converter 607

14.15 Error Voltage-to-Duty Cycle Transfer Function 610

14.16 Closed-Loop Control Voltage-to-Duty Cycle Transfer Function of Current Loop 614

14.17 Alternative Representation of Current Loop 618

14.18 Current Loop with Disturbances 618

14.19 Voltage Loop of PWM Converters with Current-Mode Control 624

14.20 Feedforward Gains in PWM Converters with Current-Mode Control without Slope Compensation 631

14.21 Feedforward Gains in PWM Converters with Current-Mode Control and Slope Compensation 634

14.22 Control-to-Output Voltage Transfer Function of Inner Loop with Feedforward Gains 636

14.23 Audio-Susceptibility of Inner Loop with Feedforward Gains 637

14.24 Closed-Loop Transfer Functions with Feedforward Gains 638

14.25 Slope Compensation by Adding a Ramp to Inductor Current Waveform 638

14.26 Relationships for Constant-Frequency Current-Mode On-Time Control 639

14.27 Summary 639

References 640

Review Questions 644

Problems 644

14.28 Appendix: Sample-and-Hold Modeling 645

15 Current-Mode Control of Boost Converter 653

15.1 Introduction 653

15.2 Open-Loop Small-Signal Transfer Functions 653

15.3 Open-Loop Step Responses of Inductor Current 667

15.4 Closed-Current-Loop Transfer Functions 675

15.5 Closed-Voltage-Loop Transfer Functions 695

15.6 Closed-Loop Step Responses 706

15.7 Closed-Loop DC Transfer Functions 710

15.8 Summary 711

References 711

Review Questions 712

Problems 712

16 Open-Loop Small-Signal Characteristics of PWM Boost Converter for DCM 713

16.1 Introduction 713

16.2 Small-Signal Model of Boost Converter for DCM 713

16.3 Open-Loop Control-to-Output Transfer Function 716

16.4 Open-Loop Input-to-Output Voltage Transfer Function 719

16.5 Open-Loop Input Impedance 724

16.6 Open-Loop Output Impedance 725

16.7 Step Responses of Output Voltage of Boost Converter for DCM 728

16.8 Open-Loop Duty Cycle-to-Inductor Current Transfer Function 731

16.9 Open-Loop Input Voltage-to-Inductor Current Transfer Function 735

16.10 Open-Loop Output Current-to-Inductor Current Transfer Function 735

16.11 Step Responses of Inductor Current of Boost Converter for DCM 738

16.12 DC Characteristics of Boost Converter for DCM 742

16.13 Summary 745

References 745

Review Questions 746

Problems 746

17 Silicon and Silicon-Carbide Power Diodes 747

17.1 Introduction 747

17.2 Electronic Power Switches 747

17.3 Atom 748

17.4 Electron and Hole Effective Mass 749

17.5 Semiconductors 750

17.6 Intrinsic Semiconductors 751

17.7 Extrinsic Semiconductors 756

17.8 Wide Band Gap Semiconductors 762

17.9 Physical Structure of Junction Diodes 764

17.10 Static I–V Diode Characteristic 768

17.11 Breakdown Voltage of Junction Diodes 772

17.12 Capacitances of Junction Diodes 784

17.13 Reverse Recovery of pn Junction Diodes 789

17.14 Schottky Diodes 798

17.15 Solar Cells 806

17.16 Light-Emitting Diodes 809

17.17 SPICE Model of Diodes 810

17.18 Summary 811

References 815

Review Questions 816

Problems 817

18 Silicon and Silicon-Carbide Power MOSFETs 819

18.1 Introduction 819

18.2 Integrated MOSFETs 819

18.3 Physical Structure of Power MOSFETs 819

18.4 Principle of Operation of Power MOSFETs 824

18.5 Derivation of Power MOSFET Characteristics 826

18.6 Power MOSFET Characteristics 831

18.7 Mobility of Charge Carriers 833

18.8 Short-Channel Effects 846

18.9 Aspect Ratio of Power MOSFETs 848

18.10 Breakdown Voltage of Power MOSFETs 850

18.11 Gate Oxide Breakdown Voltage of Power MOSFETs 852

18.12 Specific On-Resistance 852

18.13 Figures-of-Merit of Semiconductors 855

18.14 On-Resistance of Power MOSFETs 857

18.15 Capacitances of Power MOSFETs 862

18.16 Switching Waveforms 875

18.17 SPICE Model of Power MOSFETs 877

18.18 IGBTs 879

18.19 Heat Sinks 880

18.20 Summary 886

References 888

Review Questions 888

Problems 889

19 Electromagnetic Compatibility 891

19.1 Introduction 891

19.2 Definition of EMI 891

19.3 Definition of EMC 892

19.4 EMI Immunity 892

19.5 EMI Susceptibility 893

19.6 Classification of EMI 893

19.7 Sources of EMI 895

19.8 Safety Standards 896

19.9 EMC Standards 896

19.10 Near Field and Far Field 897

19.11 Techniques of EMI Reduction 897

19.12 Insertion Loss 898

19.13 EMI Filters 898

19.14 Feed-Through Capacitors 900

19.15 EMI Shielding 900

19.16 Interconnections 902

19.17 Summary 903

References 903

Review Questions 903

Problem 904

A Introduction to SPICE 907

B Introduction to MATLAB® 910

C Physical Constants 915

Answers to Problems 917

Index 925

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