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System level ESD co-design

作者: Charvaka Duvvury 出版社: Wiley-IEEE Press
ISBN: 9781118861905分类号: TN721 /S995
出版时间: 2015-09-05有239人浏览

【内容简介】

An effective and cost efficient protection of electronic system against ESD stress pulses specified by IEC 61000-4-2 is paramount for any system design. This pioneering book presents the collective knowledge of system designers and system testing experts and state-of-the-art techniques for achieving efficient system-level ESD protection, with minimum impact on the system performance. All categories of system failures ranging from 'hard' to 'soft' types are considered to review simulation and tool applications that can be used.

The principal focus of System Level ESD Co-Design is defining and establishing the importance of co-design efforts from both IC supplier and system builder perspectives. ESD designers often face challenges in meeting customers' system-level ESD requirements and, therefore, a clear understanding of the techniques presented here will facilitate effective simulation approaches leading to better solutions without compromising system performance.

With contributions from Robert Ashton, Jeffrey Dunnihoo, Micheal Hopkins, Pratik Maheshwari, David Pomerenke, Wolfgang Reinprecht, and Matti Usumaki, readers benefit from hands-on experience and in-depth knowledge in topics ranging from ESD design and the physics of system ESD phenomena to tools and techniques to address soft failures and strategies to design ESD-robust systems that include mobile and automotive applications.

The first dedicated resource to system-level ESD co-design, this is an essential reference for industry ESD designers, system builders, IC suppliers and customers and also Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs).

Key features:

  • Clarifies the concept of system level ESD protection.
  • Introduces a co-design approach for ESD robust systems.
  • Details soft and hard ESD fail mechanisms.
  • Detailed protection strategies for both mobile and automotive applications.
  • Explains simulation tools and methodology for system level ESD co-design and overviews available test methods and standards.
  • Highlights economic benefits of system ESD co-design.

【目录】

List of Contributors xiii

Preface xv

Acronyms xvii

About the Book xxi

1 Introduction 1
Charvaka Duvvury

1.1 Definition of Co-Design 1

1.2 Overview of the Book 2

1.3 Challenges of System Level ESD Protection 2

1.4 Importance of System Level Protection 2

1.5 Industry-Wide Perception 5

1.6 Purpose and Motivation 8

1.7 Organization and Approach 8

1.8 Outcome for the Reader 12

Acknowledgments 12

References 12

2 Component versus System Level ESD 14
Charvaka Duvvury and Harald Gossner

2.1 ESD Threat in the Real World 14

2.1.1 ESD Control 14

2.1.2 ESD Failure Types 15

2.1.3 ESD Protection Areas 16

2.1.4 ESD Stress Models 17

2.2 Component ESD Qualification 17

2.2.1 Component ESD Tests 17

2.2.2 ESD Levels for IC Production 18

2.2.3 Implications for System Level ESD 20

2.2.4 ESD Technology Roadmap 20

2.3 System Level ESD Tests 21

2.3.1 IEC 61000-4-2 22

2.4 ISO 10605 29

2.5 IEC 61000-4-5 31

2.5.1 System Applications 32

2.5.2 Misconceptions and Miscorrelation of Component and System Level Tests 35

2.5.3 Hard Failures Due to IEC Testing 42

2.6 Soft Failures Due to IEC Testing 42

Acknowledgments 43

References 43

3 System Level Testing for ESD Susceptibility 46
Michael Hopkins

3.1 Introduction 46

3.2 Objectives of System Level Testing 47

3.3 Compliance to ESD Standards 47

3.3.1 Legal Compliance Requirements 47

3.3.2 Compliance to Industry Requirements 48

3.4 Testing for Product Reliability 48

3.5 Standards Requirements for System Level Testing 49

3.5.1 IEC 61000-4-2 49

3.5.2 Automotive Standards for ESD 58

3.5.3 Medical Standards for ESD 60

3.5.4 Avionics Standards for ESD 61

3.5.5 Military ESD Standards 61

3.6 Using the IEC Simulator for Device Testing 62

3.7 Cable Discharge (CDE) Testing 63

3.7.1 Shielded Cables 65

3.7.2 Unshielded Cables 65

3.7.3 Modified Transmission Line Pulsers (TLP) for CDE Testing 66

3.8 Evaluation of Test Results 67

3.8.1 Hard Failure Evaluation 67

3.8.2 Soft Failure Evaluation 67

3.9 The Quick Fix vs Root Cause Determination 67

3.10 Determining Root Cause of System Level ESD 68

3.11 Reproducibility of System Level ESD Tests 70

Acknowledgments 72

References 72

4 PCB/IC Co-Design Concepts for SEED 74
Harald Gossner and Charvaka Duvvury

4.1 On-Chip System ESD Protection 74

4.1.1 HBM and CDM vs IEC 74

4.1.2 TLP Characterization 76

4.1.3 TLP Correlation Issues 78

4.2 Off-Chip ESD Protection 79

4.3 Concept of PCB/IC Co-Design 82

4.3.1 On-Chip IEC Protection Solutions 84

4.4 Introduction to System Efficient ESD Design 84

4.4.1 Design Methods for SEED 90

4.4.2 Basic Simulations using SEED 91

4.4.3 USB Design using SEED 94

4.5 Characterization for Hard Failures 97

4.6 Simulation of System Level ESD Discharge Paths 98

4.6.1 Simulation Approach 98

4.6.2 Tools 101

4.6.3 ESD Model Types 103

4.6.4 Extraction of PCB Paths 104

4.6.5 Models of PCB Devices 104

4.6.6 Characterization of IO Cells 106

4.6.7 Power Clamp Models 112

4.6.8 Model for Stress Waveform 114

4.7 Characterization of Soft Failures 116

4.7.1 Purpose and Basic Concept 116

4.7.2 Pin Specific Soft Failure Characterization 120

4.7.3 Soft Failures Related to Signal Integrity Problems 123

4.8 Summary of SEED Characterization 125

Acknowledgments 126

References 127

5 Hard Failures and PCB Protection Devices 129
Robert Ashton

5.1 Introduction 129

5.2 ESD Damage to ICs 129

5.3 Protection Methods 130

5.3.1 Classification of TVS Devices 133

5.4 Characteristics of Protection Devices 134

5.4.1 Current Limiting Devices 134

5.4.2 TVS Properties in Their Off-State 135

5.4.3 Protection Properties of TVS Devices 137

5.5 Types of Protection Devices for ESD 142

5.5.1 Silicon Based TVS Devices 143

5.5.2 Metal Oxide Varistors 154

5.5.3 Polymer Voltage Suppressors 155

5.5.4 Gas Discharge Tubes 156

5.5.5 Spark Gaps on PCBs 158

5.5.6 Thyristor Surge Protection Devices 159

5.5.7 Ferrite Beads 159

5.5.8 Passive Components 161

5.5.9 Common Mode Filters 162

5.6 Primary and Secondary Protection 163

5.7 Evaluating IC Pins 164

5.8 Choosing ESD Protection Devices 164

5.8.1 Coordination between TVS Device and Sensitive Nodes 165

5.9 Summary 167

References 167

6 Soft Failure Mechanisms and PCB Design Measures 169
David Pommerenke and Pratik Maheshwari

6.1 Introduction 169

6.2 Are HBM, CDM, MM, and Latch-Up Results Meaningful Soft Failures? 171

6.3 Classification of Soft Failure Modes 173

6.3.1 In-Band/Out-of-Band with Respect to Voltage 174

6.3.2 In-Band/Out-of-Band with Respect to Pulse Width 175

6.3.3 Local vs Distant Errors 176

6.3.4 Amplified/Non-amplified Soft Failures 176

6.4 Optimized System Level Testing 178

6.5 Soft Failure Characterization Methods 182

6.5.1 Susceptibility Scanning 183

6.5.2 Current Spreading Reconstruction 190

6.5.3 Local Injection 191

6.5.4 Software-Based Methods for Soft Failure Analysis 201

6.6 Soft Failure Examples 205

6.6.1 Example 1: Soft Failure Caused by Field Injection on a DUT (Mini Photo Frame) 205

6.6.2 Example 2: PLL Disturbance Measurement 207

6.6.3 Example 3: Direct Field Coupling on the USB Data Bus 212

6.6.4 Example 4: Direct Injection on the MIPI Bus Interface 215

6.7 Countermeasure Examples 216

6.7.1 Divert Current 216

6.7.2 Filtering 217

6.7.3 Shielding 217

6.7.4 Secondary ESD Avoidance 218

6.7.5 Improved Connector-Cable Shield Connection 218

6.7.6 Enclosure to Connector Shield Junction 218

6.7.7 Firmware 218

6.7.8 Reducing Crosstalk 219

6.7.9 Reduce ESD Current by Resistance 220

6.7.10 Avoid ESD 222

6.8 The Way Forward 223

Acknowledgment 230

References 231

7 ESD in Mobile Devices 234
Matti Uusimäki

7.1 Introduction 234

7.2 ESD Energy Path in Mobile Device 234

7.3 ESD Generation Examples on a Large Scale 239

7.3.1 Large Machines Generating Charges to Their Isolated Bodies 239

7.3.2 Tribo-Electric Series 240

7.3.3 Charge Generated by a Person Inside a Car 240

7.3.4 The Charge Generated to Mobile Device by Accident in Grounded System 241

7.3.5 Alternative Discharging Paths at Connection Moment 244

7.3.6 Charge Behavior at Insulator Surface 244

7.3.7 Example of Consumer Level Charge Generation with Simple Device 246

7.4 Relation between Electrostatic Discharge Immunity Test and Real-World Discharge Waveforms 248

7.5 Laboratory Test Methods 248

7.6 Fast ESD and Slow ESD Concepts 249

7.7 Fast-ESD and Slow-ESD in a Mobile Device 250

7.7.1 Example of Ground Level Bounce Relative to an External Module 251

7.8 Isolating a Mobile Device 252

7.8.1 Example 1: Material Thickness 252

7.8.2 Example 2: Solid Glue 253

7.8.3 Example 3: Positioning Holes in a Rubberized Key Mat 255

7.8.4 Example 4: Induced Electric Field 255

7.9 Shielding a Mobile Device 257

7.10 Orientation Effects on ESD Path 259

7.10.1 ESD Path Example: Phone Face Up on Table 259

7.10.2 ESD Path Example: Phone Face Down on the Table 263

7.11 ESD Design in Practice 264

7.11.1 Grounding Challenges in Practice 264

7.12 PCB Layout Considerations of Metal Shielding “Cans” 267

7.12.1 Components Near the Edge of the Shield 268

7.13 ESD Protection for Cable Interfaces 269

7.13.1 Cable Placement and Common Mode Current in a Mobile Device 270

7.13.2 Localizing Noise Current with Alternate Cabling Placement 274

7.13.3 Cable Interface Protection Components 275

7.14 Common Mode Impedance Concerns for Layout 280

7.14.1 Common Mode Impedance Challenges in the Grounding Paths 280

7.14.2 Signals with Shared Common Mode Impedance 280

7.14.3 Isolating Signals with Shield Grounded to Internal PCB Layers 282

7.14.4 Simulated Example of Ground Impedance Effect on ESD/EMI Filter Performance 283

7.14.5 ESD Protection on Stacked Chips 283

7.14.6 Layout Concerns around the Periphery and PCB Cutouts 285

7.15 ESD and Software Considerations in Mobile Devices 287

7.15.1 Role of Software in EMC and ESD Design 287

7.15.2 Signal Sensitivity to ESD Examples 288

7.15.3 Delayed Effects on Software from ESD Events 290

7.16 Software Versions Utilized in Early ESD Immunity Testing 291

7.17 Conclusion 292

References 292

8 ESD for Automotive Applications 294
Wolfgang Reinprecht

8.1 Introduction and Historical Aspects 294

8.1.1 Why Do Automotive Components Require High ESD Levels? 294

8.1.2 Field Return Rate of Automotive Products due to System Level ESD Events 296

8.1.3 ESD Related Field Returns Because of Incomplete Specification or Missing System Protection 297

8.2 Automotive Components 299

8.2.1 Communication Systems CAN, LIN, FlexRay 299

8.2.2 Power Supply Systems as DCDC Converter, Alternator, LDO 303

8.2.3 Sensors and Sensor Interfaces 304

8.2.4 Keyless Entry/Go with Components Exposed to Human Touching/Handling 311

8.2.5 Power Steering, Drive by Wire, Gearbox, Hybrid Systems, Recuperation 313

8.2.6 LED Lights, Entertainment, Navigation, and Audio 313

8.3 Design Constraints, Operating Voltage, and Overvoltage Tolerance 315

8.3.1 “Normal Overvoltage Range”: 18 V into 5 V/3 V/1.8 V 315

8.3.2 Load Dump 315

8.3.3 Loss of Ground, Dual Polarity, and Reverse Polarity 317

8.3.4 EMC Tolerance versus ESD Robustness (Fast Transients) 319

8.3.5 Leakage Current versus ESD Robustness (Pre-Pulse Voltage) 320

8.3.6 Latch-Up-Free ESD Protection versus Snapback Devices 321

8.4 On-Board ESD Protection and Internal ESD Protection 324

8.4.1 Characterization Methods to Get Relevant Data for External ESD Devices 324

8.4.2 ESD Design Window Using External Protection Elements (TVS) 324

8.4.3 Optimizing On-Chip ESD Protections to Match Board Level Protection 324

8.4.4 On-Board Ground Shift due to System ESD Events 325

8.4.5 Secondary Effects as Transient Disturbances to “Internal” Pins (Lateral Coupling) 326

8.4.6 Pin Placement, External Passive Components, and Board Layout Constraints 328

8.5 Verification and Qualification 329

8.5.1 Safe Operating Area Check to Verify Overvoltage Tolerance 329

8.5.2 ESD Design Rule Check to Verify ESD Concept and Constraints 330

8.5.3 ESD Tests on Chip Level HBM/CDM 331

8.5.4 TLP Characterization of Product to Meet SEED 331

8.5.5 System ESD Tests on Board Level up to the Level of Failure 331

8.5.6 No-Gos in Terms of ESD Design 332

8.6 Conclusion 332

References 333

9 Future Applications of SEED Methodology 334
Harald Gossner and Charvaka Duvvury

9.1 Refinement of Models 334

9.2 Limitations of Simulation and Beyond 337

9.2.1 Relation of SEED to System ESD Tests 337

9.2.2 Outlook to a Comprehensive Design Verification 341

9.3 Advances toward High-Speed Systems 342

9.3.1 USB and HDMI Challenges 343

9.4 Issues and Challenges of System Protection 345

9.4.1 USB 2.0 versus USB 3.0 345

9.4.2 USB 2.0/3.0 versus HDMI 346

9.4.3 Automotive Technologies 346

9.4.4 IC Package Technologies 347

9.4.5 PCB Technologies 347

9.4.6 Optical Interfaces 348

9.4.7 Polymer Material Applications 348

9.5 Benefits for Next Generation Systems 349

9.5.1 Harmonized Approach for Component to System Protection 349

9.5.2 IEC Specification Requirements 350

9.5.3 Cost of System Protection 351

Acknowledgments 351

References 351

10 Co-Design Trade-Offs: Balancing Robustness, Performance, and Cost 353
Jeffrey C. Dunnihoo

10.1 Co-Designing across Functional and Corporate Boundaries 353

10.1.1 Component (Factory) versus System (End User) ESD Issues 353

10.1.2 Probabilities and Uncertainties of System ESD Costs 354

10.1.3 Bounded and Cumulative ESD Failure Probability 355

10.1.4 Product and Organizational Response to ESD Failure 357

10.1.5 The Reality of the “Real Cost of ESD” 358

10.1.6 Co-Designing a Solution 358

10.2 ESD Goals and Constraints 359

10.2.1 The Co-Design Gamut 359

10.2.2 ESD Margin Requirement Based on Unknown Probabilities 360

10.2.3 Extreme and Abusive Users 361

10.2.4 Ignoring the “Long Tail” Events 363

10.2.5 Capturing Quantitative System Fault Data 364

10.2.6 ESD Sousveillance 364

10.2.7 Beyond ESD Sousveillance 365

10.2.8 Vulnerabilities in the Meantime 365

10.3 Costs of System and Component ESD Susceptibility 366

10.3.1 Poor User Experience 366

10.3.2 Quantifying User Experience 367

10.3.3 Failure Analysis and Customer Return Costs 367

10.4 Costs of Improving System and Component ESD Robustness 369

10.4.1 Component Costs 369

10.4.2 Reduced Profit Margin 370

10.4.3 Reduced Performance 370

10.4.4 Co-Design Cost Allocation Example 371

10.4.5 Alternative Cost Reductions with Performance Enhancement 372

10.4.6 Increased Time-to-Market and Negative TVS Pricing 375

10.5 Defining the Interaction and Trade-off Matrix 376

10.5.1 Performance 376

10.5.2 Price 377

10.5.3 Robustness 377

10.6 Assigning the Costs of Failure Criteria 378

10.7 System Development Triangle Co-Design Contributions 379

10.7.1 Function Vendor Partitions (CPU, ASIC, Interface Device) 380

10.8 Product Planning Guidelines 380

10.8.1 Set Realistic Robustness Goals Early 380

10.8.2 Responsibilities of the Product Design Team 381

10.8.3 Responsibilities of the Product Testing and Qualification Team 381

10.8.4 Responsibility for Line Returns from Manufacturing 381

10.8.5 Responsibility for Field Returns from the Customer 381

10.8.6 Organizational Interaction with Vendors 381

10.9 Validating Co-Design Trade-off Decisions 382

10.9.1 Historical Data Availability 382

10.9.2 Difficulties of Cost Identification and Assignment 383

10.9.3 Dangers of the “Keep Your Head Down” Mentality 384

10.9.4 Balancing Low-Level Problems with High-Profile Exposure 385

10.10 Conclusions on Co-Design Economics 387

References 387

Glossary 389

Index 391

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