With a growing need for understanding the process involved in producing and perceiving spoken language, this timely publication answers these questions in an accessible reference.Containing material resulting from many years’ teaching and research, Speech Synthesis provides a complete account of the theory of speech.By bringing together the common goals and methods of speech synthesis into a single resource, the book will lead the way towards a comprehensive view of the process involved in human speech. The book includes applications in speech technology and speech synthesis. It is ideal for intermediate students of linguistics and phonetics who wish to proceed further, as well as researchers and engineers in telecommunications working in speech technology and speech synthesis who need a comprehensive overview of the field and who wish to gain an understanding of the objectives and achievements of the study of speech production and perception.
Part I: Current Work.
1. High-Level and Low-Level Synthesis.
2. Low-Level Synthesisers: Current Status.
4. Different Low-Level Synthesisers: What Can Be Expected?
5. Low-Level Synthesis Potential.
Part II: A New Direction for Speech Synthesis.
6. A View of Naturalness.
7. Physical Parameters and Abstract Information Channels.
8. Variability and System Integrity.
9. Automatic Speech Recognition.
Part III: High-Level Control.
10. The Need for High-Level Control.
11. The Input to High-Level Control.
12. Problems for Automatic Text Markup.
Part IV: Areas for Improvement.
13. Filling Gaps.
14. Using Different Units.
15. Waveform Concatenation Systems: Naturalness and Large Databases.
16. Unit Selection Systems.
Part V: Markup.
18. Speech Synthesis Markup Language (SSML).
20. The Need for Prosodic Markup.
Part VI: Strengthening the High-Level Model.
22. Basic Concepts.
23. Underlying Basic Disciplines: Expression Studies.
24. Labelling Expressive/Emotive Content.
25. The Proposed Model.
26. Types of Model.
Part VII: Expanded Static and Dynamic Modelling.
27. The Underlying Linguistics System.
28. Planes for Synthesis.
Part VIII: The Prosodic Framework, Coding and Intonation.
29. The Phonological Prosodic Framework.
30. Sample Code.
31. XML Coding.
32. Prosody: General.
33. Phonological and Phonetic Models of Intonation.
Part IX: Approaches to Natural-Sounding Synthesis.
34. The General Approach.
35. The Expression Wrapper in XML.
36. Advantages of XML in Wrapping.
37. Considerations in Characterising Expression/Emotion.
Part X: Concluding Overview.